Chroma 17010 Battery Reliability Test System is a high-precision system designed specifically for testing lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells, electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and lithium-ion capacitors (LICs). The test equipment is suitable for productdevelopment and quality control by providingcharacteristic research, cycle life testing, product screening, and quality assessment.
Chroma 17010 system provides two design architecture types. The linear circuit series produce low output noise and high measurement accuracy, suitable for reliability evaluation of small and medium-sized energy storage components in development. The regenerative AC/DC bi-directional series with power saving and low heat generating features fit standard product life evaluation as well as medium and large-sized energy storage components or power battery cell testing.
The Chroma 17010 system adopts the Battery Lab Expert (Battery LEx) software platform, which allows users to quickly reference existing test recipes or add new ones through a multi-layer recipe structure, edit and modify projects, manage individual DUT database, and use shared recipes for different DUTs.
In addi t ion to the common cha rge and discharge test steps, Battery LEx also combines C-rate, OCV-SOC, Q%, waveform simulation, and chamber control modes, suitable for compliance testing to international test standards such as USABC, IEC, and GB/T as well as various other test applications. The test execution and monitoring design employs a group management method, allowing users to easily track the test status. Various controls can be executed during the test, including starting, pausing, resuming, step skipping, reservation pausing, specific starting.
The Chroma 17010 system integrates a high-precision and multifunctional data logger, which can measure the temperature, voltage, and pressure of the DUT in realtime and in turn serve as an advanced cutoff and protection condition. It also supports the integration of various brands safety chambers. Users can issue commands through safety chamber control steps, with builtin chamber synchronization and secondary adjustment functions that enhance operational convenience.
Chroma 17010 system provides three safety mechanisms: software/hardware detection, equipment abnormality monitoring, and optional independent relay hardware detection to ensure the safety of LIB cells tests.
Ultra High Precision Charge/Discharge Tester 17208M-5-12C
The Chroma 17208M-5-12C is an ultra-high precision programmable charge/discharge tester specifically designed for high-precision measurement applications. Common applications include Coulombic Efficiency (CE) analysis, Incremental Capacity Analysis( ICA), and Differential Voltage Analysis (DVA), where the instrument is required to measure the voltage and capacity of the battery for a long time with high levels of stability, precision and accuracy to obtain high quality test data without post-processing. The Chroma 17208M-5-12C not only has four current ranges (12A, 4A, 0.4A, 40mA), but also has a voltage measurement range of 0 to 5V for charge/discharge. Each channel is equipped with shielded wiring that isolates the device from noise and improves measurement quality.
High stability, high precision and high accuracy
Through meticulous circuit and mechanism design, the 17208M-5-12C effectively blocks the influence of waste heat on high-precision circuits and components, improving measurement stability during time consuming tests. In addition, the measurement accuracy of up to ±0.01% of F.S. ensures the consistency of each test, while the measurement precision of up to ±0.002% of F.S. guarantees the repeatability of each measurement value.
• ±0.01% of F.S.measurement accuracy
• ±0.002% of F.S.measurement precision
High resolution and low output noise
The 17208M-5-12C adopts a 24-bit ADC to improve the measurement resolution and provide users with highly granular test data, accurately presenting the actual electrical signal of the DUT.
• Voltage measurement resolution up to 1μV：1μV
• Current measurement resolution up to：0.01μA
Effectively simplify DVA test data processing
Differential Voltage Analysis (DVA) is a method commonly used to evaluate battery aging. However, poor device accuracy and precision specifications often make it difficult to identify characteristic peaks, requiring a significant amount of human resources for smoothing algorithms and bearing the risk of curve distortion. The 17208M-5-12C provides stable full-range current output throughout the test, which ensures accuracy and eliminates the problem of excessive noise caused by measurement fluctuations while obtaining clearly identifiable characteristic peaks in DVA curves.
Multiple Current Range Design
Quick switching of current ranges
Chroma 17010 series provide multiple current outputs and measurement range switching, fitting test plans with both large and small currents. At the start of a test step, the system will detect the output current and then automatically and quickly switch to the appropriate current range. This improves the test accuracy and resolution for highly accurate test data.
Automatic range switching under constant voltage mode
Chroma 17010 linear circuit models support automatic switching of the current range in the constant voltage test mode, without any output interruption. This is perfect for applications such as float charging or potential regulation, which require long- term and highly stable testing of extremely small current output.
DST Application Test & Current Range (Using 17216M-6-12 model range)
CV Test Current Switching
High Stability of Long-term Output
Chroma 17010 is equipped with low output noise and high measurement accuracy. The test current and voltage data can be converted into highly accurate and clear characteristic peaks to efficiently research the aging mechanism of Li-ion batteries.
Actual Voltage/Current Measurement Accuracy
Differential Voltage Analysis Curve
High-speed Sampling Technology
Chroma 17010 uses high-speed voltage and current sampling with double integration of computing to capture transient changes in the test without distortion. The advanced test system provides more accurate capacity calculations to solve the issue that general battery test equipment only use the report sampling speed to record key data, causing large cumulative errors.
• Hardware internal voltage/current sampling rate: 1mS
• Report single point transient sampling rate: 1mS
• Report sampling rate: 10mS
General Testers Charging/Discharging Sampling Rate
Chroma 17010 Charging/Discharging Sampling Rate
Super Charge/Discharge Output Mode
Chroma 17010 regenerative models provide up to 30 sec. super output functionality. For short-time & high-current pulse applications, the super mode can be set and executed directly through steps, and provides an even wider range of current and power usage.
• 17212M-6-100S：CC and CP 120% charge/discharge output
Hybrid Pulse Power Characteristic (HPPC)
Fast Current Response(<1mS)
Chroma 17010 regenerative models are provided with current response time in less than 1mS, which can more realistically simulate the instantaneous peak current of battery charging and discharging behavior when driving, and also meets NEDC, FUDS, and DST test standards.
• 17212M-6-100S：10% to 90% < 1mS
0~1200A Current Rise Time <1mS
Three Voltage Ranges
Chroma 17216M-10-6 model built in three voltage ranges, for more profuse product development applications.
• 0V~+5V：Half-cell, full-cell, EDLC testing
• 0V~+10V：Batteries in series, EDLC testing
• -5V~+5V：Symmetric battery testing
Dynamic Waveform Loading
Chroma 17010 can preload current and power dynamic charging/discharging waveforms. The system simulates acceleration, deceleration, up/downhill, and other waveforms of real-life car driving conditions and then evaluates the battery degradation and life.
• Dynamic/fixed time modes (min. output interval 10mS)
• Dynamic preloading of up to 6,400,000 data points per system
Dynamic Waveform Simulation
Chroma 17010 large current models have a high-precision, highefficiency and power-optimized energy recycling architecture that achieve green and low-carbon performance. The test system so avoids electricity waste heat due to load consumption during discharge.
• DC: Automatically prioritize discharged energy to charging channels with >80% recycling efficiency.
• AC: Recover excess energy to the AC line, with >60% recycling efficiency.
• Feed back current to the grid with total harmonic distortion <5%
Energy Recycling Architecture
The Chroma Ripple Current Test Solution is designed to superimpose AC current at frequencies from 100Hz to 20kHz to an existing 17010 charge and discharge system (Model 17212M-6-100S) to emulate the behavior of electric vehicle invertor.
• Ripple frequency from 100Hz to 20kHz, amplitude up to 75App ( parallel up to 150App )
• Independent AC/DC circuits for the lowest impact on DC charge and discharge cut-off judgement
• Ripple current superposition on various CC, CV, CP charge/discharge modes
Current Parallel Output
Chroma 17010 series support dynamic parallel functionality, which can connect continuous idle channels in parallel and provide a larger current output. Their characteristics not only improve the test versatility, but also suit a variety of test objects.
Data Protection & Resume Mechanism
In case of power failure, the optional uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can temporarily store test data in the IPC database. After power is restored, the system will automatically obtain the resumed data status and continues testing from the point of disruption. The report data will not be interrupted.
System Integration and Protection
Chroma 17010 supports integration of a variety of renowned environmental chambers and multi-functional data loggers. The Battery LEx software can simultaneously set parameters and monitor data, as well as automatically merge test data into the test report, thus providing users with the most complete test solution.
Integrable data logger
• Recording temperature(ºC), voltage (V), pressure (mPa), force (kg).
• External real-time data can serve as cut-off or protection judgments (temperature)
System protection and abnormality detection
• Following the numerous built-in recipe protections, the protection mechanism monitors and triggers with a response speed of 1mS. An independent external voltage/temperature meter relay is optional to achieve reliable two-level protection.
• Real-time abnormality detection in each tester automatically detects deviations based on independent logic. When the system is interrupted, the test can be continued after the exception is eliminated without missing any data.
Integrable chamber and peripheral safety device
• The Battery LEx software provides built-in chamber setting controller and chamber control steps, which can control temperature and humidity, indicate the temperature control time, delay time, and standby temperature, as well as control timeout and over-temperature protections.
• To ensure consistency of the test state, the grouping management structure allows all testing channels in the same chamber to enter the temperature control phase at the same time.
• The built-in DI/DO function can be connected with smoke/gas detection, fire extinguisher, and alarms for over-temperature, over-voltage, and open door. The system performs different levels of handling according to the degree of damage, including stopping the test or powering off. Alarm data can be sent remotely via e-mail.
Battery LEx Software
Battery Lab Expert (Battery LEx) is the testing software platform specially developed for Chroma 17010 and offers:
• Group testing：each group can control up to 96 channels and execute up to 50,000 steps
• Variable editing：using the data from the external data logger for flexible programming and complex applications
• Chamber integration：DI/DO amplification monitors the chamber's status and protection mechanisms in real time
• Easy management：up to 500 projects can be added, and corresponding test plans can be built according to different DUT types or test requirements.
• Intuitive display and real-time modification：convenient for checking and adjusting DUT specifications, waveform simulation data, and recipe content in the test plan. Parameters can be adjusted and saved in real-time during browsing.
• DUT database：create specifications for the devices to be tested, and quickly match parameter conditions when editing recipes. Sharing of recipe tests is also facilitated.
• Operating condition simulation：import data points in xlsx format, and set time intervals (equal intervals/custom intervals), output multiplier, and data range.
Waveform Simulation Database
• Layered structure：up to 50,000 steps can be created in a test plan (SR->MR->TP)
• Easy creation：create new recipes to meet various types of test applications.
• Quick editing：quickly combine existed recipes to complete the test plan.
• Special notation for settings：provides special settings for C-rate / OCV-SOC / Q% / ±V / variables when editing recipes.
• Variable settings and conditional cutoff function：provides 20 sets of variable definitions, including 2 sets of variable functions that can be used across sub-recipes. The transient capture function (1mS to 100mS) records the variable definition at the start/end of each step as a variable for secondary calculation.
• Multi-group start
• Various control options: start, pause, resume, stop, reserved pause, specified start, skip to next step, pause and skip to next step, recipe preview
• Real-time test status: real-time display of test data for single channel and entire group
• Supports dynamic parallel setting
Real-time Chart Display
• Multi-chart monitoring：displays up to 4 real-time screens, supporting up to 2 channels of test comparison per screen
• Graph capture：provides time-freeze function to save test curves
• Multi-axis analysis：provides dual-Y-axis data display
Real-time Chart Display
• Export modes：automatically export reports using sub-recipes as segment point, with options for exporting based on time settings automatically or manually
• The system can adjust effective digits in the data up to 9 decimal places
• Report types：channel report, step report
• Free adjustment of report items and column orders
Test Report Preview
Chamber Control and System DI/DO Signal Control
• Delay function：set a rest time after reaching the set temperature to ensure consistency between the temperatures of the chamber and the DUTs
• Cycle temperature setting：after reaching the set temperature, the intergrated data logger is used to adjust the chamber temperature according to the actual temperature of the DUTs, accurately harmonizing the temperature of the chamber and DUTs
• End-of-test setting modes：end temperature control, adjust to the specified temperature, or maintain temperature
• Dual protection control：over-temperature protection, temperature control timeout protection
• Device external control：provides three-color light signal control and relay signal control
• Synchronized temperature control：automatic sync. mechanism ensures that the chamber temperature control starts only when all channels reach the "temperature control step", ensuring test consistency
• Temperature control inheritance：after the main control group test is completed, the chamber control right can be automatically inherited by other groups
Chamber Control Settings
• Alert notifications：email can be set up to provide warning messages
• Recipe transfer：import/export/move recipes and test plans
• Data management：administrators can set up automatic or manual deletion of system data
• Forced global protection：forced set up recipe protection to prevent human error and enhance test security
Test Plan Import/Export
Lithium Battery Test Applications
Differential Voltage (dV/dQ)
The key to plotting the d V/ d Q curve is to charge and discharge the battery with a small current(< C/20)in order to eliminate polarization effects on the test results. Chroma 17010 has low noise to draw high-definition dV/dQ vs. Q curves, users can view and mark each characteristic peak in detail. The ageing test allows users to analyze the battery's aging system based on the deviation and height of each characteristic peak.
Direct Current Internal Resistance (DCIR)
The battery internal resistance is rated to the charge/discharge rate that the battery can be used for. The larger the internal resistance value, the lower the efficiency and cause the temperature rises. ACIR measurement of traditional 1KHz LCR meters can only evaluate the ohmic resistance (Ro) of the battery that affects the instantaneous power output, but is unable to evaluate the polarization resistance (Rp) produced during electrochemical reaction. DCIR assessment includes ACIR and comes closer to the actual polarization effect of the battery under continuous power application.
Chroma 17010 has two programmable DCIR test modes, and – with the variable calculation function – can automatically obtain test results that meet the IEC 61960 standard.
• DCIR (1) is based on the voltage difference caused by one current change
• DCIR (2) is based on the voltage difference caused by the change between two currents
Li-ion battery Equivalent Circuit Model
DCIR Test (1)
DCIR Test (2)
HPPC(Hybrid Pulse Power Characteristic)
Chroma 17010 has a flexible editing program that can compile HPPC test steps, as used by the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to evaluate the battery performance of new energy vehicles. The purpose is to obtain the open circuit voltage, ohmic resistance (Ro), and polarization resistance (Rp) data of a specific depth of discharge within the operating voltage range, following standard test methods. It establishes a functional relationship between the depth of discharge and the charge/discharge peak power, as an index to evaluate the battery cell’s aging and output power capacity.
The capacity can be obtained by integrating current over time, from the start of charging/discharging until the cutoff condition is reached. Common test items include current ratio and temperature characteristics. Comparing the results lets users analyze performance differences between products. Higher accuracy of current/voltage measurement and faster sampling enable to distinguish more accurately the differences in battery cell capacity.
Battery Cycle Life
Cycle life is one of the most important test items for batteries. In accordance with the experimental purpose, it tests the same battery through repeated charge and discharge conditions until the capacity falls to 80%, and then calculates the number of cycles. The cycle life test canbe used to evaluate battery performance or define proper conditions of use.
Coulombic Efficiency (CE)
CE is calculated by the charge/discharge capacity ratio when the battery is fully charged and then fully discharged. Good batteries have higher CE, and need high precision and stable equipment to distinguish differences. Chroma 17010 offers accurate CE testing that can estimate the battery lifespan with only a few cycles.
Coulombic Efficiency Test
Charge & Discharge Rate
The battery is charged and discharged at different currents to evaluate how its voltage platform and capacity maintain. Such test results are often used for adjusting the proportion of active materials during product development as well as for verifying performance of power batteries for rapid charging and discharging.
Charge & Discharge Rate
Optional Calibration System and System Accessories
Battery Cell Testing Data Logger
Chroma A172013 multi-channel voltage and A172014 multi-channel temperature data loggers can serve as auxiliary channels for the 17010 system, providing real-time temperature and voltage monitoring of the DUT during charge and discharge tests. Through the Battery LEx software, the data can be integrated into the test report and upper and lower limit protection can be set to ensure test safety.
• Each channel adopts independent 24-bit ADC sampling
• Equipped with cold junction compensation function
• Equipped with cold junction compensation function
*1：A172013 and A172014 modules can be integrated and used simultaneously.
*2：The accuracy specification does not include errors caused by the testing cables, under the condition of 100ms sampling and 23±5℃.
*3：The sampling time is for the single unit specification and does not include data integration and transmission.
Battery Cell Test System Auto Calibrator
Chroma A170103 is a complete automated calibration and verification equipment with a variety of high-precision calibration standard components built-in for programmable test tasks. Chroma A170103 applies to Chroma 17010 products up to 150A in order to ensure that the equipment maintains its high precision and traceability.
• Consistent standards verification: reducing human errors and test variables
• Efficient calibration and verification: cutting down labor costs
• Automated report generation: managing maintenance records and traceability